QoS implementation is based on the DiffServ architecture, an emerging standard from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This architecture specifies that each packet is classified upon entry into the network . The classification is carried in the IP packet header, using 6 bits from the deprecated IP type of service (TOS) field to carry the classification (class) information. Classification can also be carried in the Layer 2 frame. These special bits in the Layer 2 frame or a Layer 3 packet are described here.
Prioritization values in Layer 2 frames:
● Layer 2 Inter-Switch Link (ISL) frame headers have a 1-byte User field that carries an IEEE 802.1p class of service (CoS ) value in the three least-significant bits. On interfaces configured as Layer 2 ISL trunks, all traffic is in ISL frames.
● Layer 2 802.1Q frame headers have a 2-byte Tag Control Information field that carries the CoS value in the three most-significant bits, which are called the User Priority bits. On interfaces configured as Layer 2 802.1Q trunks, all traffic is in 802.1Q frames except for traffic in the native VLAN. Other frame types cannot carry Layer 2 CoS values. Layer 2 CoS values range from 0 for low priority to 7 for high priority.
Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 5769-5780). . Kindle Edition.
6.2.c [i] Queuing, scheduling
Traffic queuing is the ordering of packets and applies to both input and output of data. Device modules can support multiple queues, which you can use to control the sequencing of packets in different traffic classes. You can also set weighted random early detection (WRED) and tail-drop thresholds. The device drops packets only when the configured thresholds are exceeded.
Traffic scheduling is the methodical output of packets at a desired frequency to accomplish a consistent flow of traffic. You can apply traffic scheduling to different traffic classes to weight the traffic by priority.
The queuing and scheduling processes allow you to control the bandwidth that is allocated to the traffic classes, so that you achieve the desired trade-off between throughput and latency for your network.
Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 5784-5790). . Kindle Edition.
6.2.c [ii] Classification, marking
6.2.b [i] Classification
Packet classification involves using a traffic descriptor to categorize a packet within a specific group and making the packet accessible for QoS handling in the network. Using packet classification, you can partition network traffic into multiple priority levels or a class of service (CoS). You can use either access lists (ACLs) or the match command in the modular QoS CLI to match on DSCP values.
Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 5634-5637). . Kindle Edition.