Tag Archives: MULTICAST

3.5.b Implement and troubleshoot neighbor relationship

3.5.b [i] Multicast, unicast EIGRP peering

To create an EIGRP routing process, use the following commands from within global configuration mode:

Router( config)# router eigrp autonomous-system

Router( config-router)# network network-number

EIGRP sends updates to the interfaces in the specified networks. If you do not specify the network of an interface , the interface will not be advertised in any EIGRP update.

IPv6 equivalent of 224.0.0.10 (group address that is used to send routing information to all EIGRP routers on a network segment) is FF02:: A.

Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 3054-3060).  . Kindle Edition.

http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/12_2/ip/configuration/guide/fipr_c/1cfeigrp.html

3.2.d Describe IPv6 multicast

3.2.d [i] IPv6 multicast addresses

IPv6 multicast addresses IPv4 multicast addresses are defined by the leading address bits of 1110, originating from the classful network design of the early Internet when this group of addresses was designated as Class D. The Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) prefix of this group is 224.0.0.0/ 4. The group includes the addresses from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. Multicast addresses in IPv6 have the prefix FF00::/ 8. IPv6 multicast addresses are generally formed from four bit groups, outlined as follows:
v6 multicats

Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 2576-2581).  . Kindle Edition.

http://www.sixscape.com/joomla/sixscape/index.php/technical-backgrounders/tcp-ip/ip-the-internet-protocol/ipv6-internet-protocol-version-6/ipv6-multicast-addresses

3.2.d Describe IPv6 multicast

3.2.d [ii] PIMv6

The anycast RP solution in IPv6 PIM allows an IPv6 network to support anycast services for the PIM-SM RP. It allows anycast RP to be used inside a domain that runs PIM only. Anycast RP can be used in IPv4 as well as IPv6, but it does not depend on the Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP), which runs only on IPv4. This feature is useful when inter-domain connection is not required. Anycast RP is a mechanism that ISP-based backbones use to get fast convergence when a PIM RP device fails. To allow receivers and sources to rendezvous to the closest RP, the packets from a source need to get to all RPs to find joined receivers

A unicast IP address is chosen as the RP address. This address is either statically configured or distributed using a dynamic protocol to all PIM devices throughout the domain. A set of devices in the domain is chosen to act as RPs for this RP address; these devices are called the anycast RP set. Each device in the anycast RP set is configured with a loopback interface using the RP address. Each device in the anycast RP set also needs a separate physical IP address to be used for communication between the RPs.

The RP address, or a prefix that covers the RP address, is injected into the unicast routing system inside of the domain. Each device in the anycast RP set is configured with the addresses of all other devices in the anycast RP set, and this configuration must be consistent in all RPs in the set.

Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 2594-2600).  . Kindle Edition.

http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios-xml/ios/ipv6/configuration/15-1s/ipv6-15-1s-book/ip6-pimv6-anycast-rp.html

3.2.c Implement and troubleshoot multicast source discovery protocol

3.2.c [i] Intra-domain MSDP [anycast RP]

PIM-SM is the multicast forwarding protocol used in the intra-domain multicast scenarios. Anycast RP is a useful application of MSDP. This technique is used for configuring a multicast sparse mode network to provide for fault tolerance and load sharing within a single multicast domain.

Two or more RPs are configured with the same IP address (for example, 20.0.0.1) on loopback interfaces. The loopback address should be configured with a 32-bit mask. All the downstream routers are configured so that they know that 20.0.0.1 is the IP address of their local RP. IP routing automatically selects the topologically closest RP for each source and receiver. Because some sources use only one RP and some receivers a different RP, a method is needed for the RPs to exchange information about active sources. This information exchange is done with MSDP. All the RPs are configured to be MSDP peers of each other . Each RP will know about the active sources in the area of the other RP. If any of the RPs were to fail, IP routing would converge and one of the RPs would become the active RP in both areas.

Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 2556-2564).  . Kindle Edition.

http://cciethebeginning.wordpress.com/2008/08/24/msdp-and-inter-domain-multicast/

 

3.2.c Implement and troubleshoot multicast source discovery protocol

3.2.c [ii] SA filter

MSDP-SA messages contain Source, Group (S, G) information for rendezvous points (RPs) (also known as MSDP peers) in PIM sparse-mode (PIM-SM) domains. This mechanism allows RPs to learn about multicast sources in remote PIM-SM domains so that they can join those sources if there are local receivers in their own domain. You can also use MSDP between multiple RPs in a single PIM-SM domain to establish MSDP mesh-groups. With a default configuration, MSDP exchanges SA messages without filtering them for specific source or group addresses.

Typically, there are a number of (S, G) states in a PIM-SM domain that should stay within the PIM-SM domain, but, due to default filtering, they get passed in SA messages to MSDP peers. Examples of this include domain local applications that use global IP multicast addresses , and sources that use local IP addresses (such as 10. x.y.z). In the native IP multicast Internet, this default leads to excessive (S, G) information being shared.

Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 2570-2573).  . Kindle Edition.

http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/ip-multicast/13717-49.html