4.2.a [iii] Virtual tunneling Interface [VTI]
The use of IPsec VTIs both greatly simplifies the configuration process when you need to provide protection for remote access and provides a simpler alternative to using generic routing encapsulation (GRE) or Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) tunnels for encapsulation and crypto maps with IPsec. A major benefit associated with IPsec VTIs is that the configuration does not require a static mapping of IPsec sessions to a physical interface. The IPsec tunnel endpoint is associated with an actual (virtual ) interface. Because there is a routable interface at the tunnel endpoint, many common interface capabilities can be applied to the IPsec tunnel.
The IPsec VTI allows for the flexibility of sending and receiving both IP unicast and multicast encrypted traffic on any physical interface, such as in the case of multiple paths . Traffic is encrypted or decrypted when it is forwarded from or to the tunnel interface and is managed by the IP routing table. Using IP routing to forward the traffic to the tunnel interface simplifies the IPsec VPN configuration compared to the more complex process of using access control lists (ACLs) with the crypto map in native IPsec configurations. DVTIs function like any other real interface so that you can apply quality of service (QoS), firewall, and other security services as soon as the tunnel is active.
IPsec VTIs allow you to configure a virtual interface to which you can apply features. Features for clear-text packets are configured on the VTI. Features for encrypted packets are applied on the physical outside interface. When IPsec VTIs are used, you can separate the application of features such as NAT, ACLs, and QoS and apply them to clear-text or encrypted text, or both. When crypto maps are used, there is no simple way to apply encryption features to the IPsec tunnel.
There are two types of VTI interfaces:
● Static VTIs (SVTIs)
● Dynamic VTIs (DVTIs)
SVTI configurations can be used for site-to-site connectivity in which a tunnel provides always-on access between two sites. The advantage of using SVTIs as opposed to crypto map configurations is that users can enable dynamic routing protocols on the tunnel interface without the extra 4 bytes required for GRE headers , thus reducing the bandwidth for sending encrypted data. Additionally, multiple Cisco IOS software features can be configured directly on the tunnel interface and on the physical egress interface of the tunnel interface. This direct configuration allows users to have solid control on the application of the features in the pre- or post-encryption path.
DVTIs can provide highly secure and scalable connectivity for remote-access VPNs. The DVTI technology replaces dynamic crypto maps and the dynamic hub-and-spoke method for establishing tunnels. Dynamic VTIs can be used for both the server and remote configuration. The tunnels provide an on-demand separate virtual access interface for each VPN session. The configuration of the virtual access interfaces is cloned from a virtual template configuration, which includes the IPsec configuration and any Cisco IOS software feature configured on the virtual template interface, such as QoS, NetFlow, or ACLs.
Dynamic VTIs function like any other real interface so that you can apply QoS, firewall, other security services as soon as the tunnel is active. QoS features can be used to improve the performance of various applications across the network. Any combination of QoS features offered in Cisco IOS software can be used to support voice, video, or data applications.
Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 4896-4898). . Kindle Edition.