4.1.a Implement and troubleshoot MPLS operations

4.1.a [iii] MPLS ping, MPLS traceroute

MPLS LSP ping uses MPLS echo request and reply packets to validate an LSP. You can use MPLS LSP ping to validate IPv4 LDP, AToM, and IPv4 RSVP FECs by using appropriate keywords and arguments with the ping mpls command. The MPLS echo request packet is sent to a target router through the use of the appropriate label stack associated with the LSP to be validated. Use of the label stack causes the packet to be forwarded over the LSP itself.

The destination IP address of the MPLS echo request packet is different from the address used to select the label stack. The destination IP address is defined as a 127. x.y.z/ 8 address. The 127 .x.y.z/ 8 address prevents the IP packet from being IP switched to its destination if the LSP is broken.

An MPLS echo reply is sent in response to an MPLS echo request. The reply is sent as an IP packet and it is forwarded using IP, MPLS, or a combination of both types of switching. The source address of the MPLS echo reply packet is an address obtained from the router generating the echo reply. The destination address is the source address of the router that originated the MPLS echo request packet. The MPLS echo reply destination port is set to the echo request source port.

MPLS LSP traceroute uses MPLS echo request and reply packets to validate an LSP. You can use MPLS LSP traceroute to validate IPv4 LDP and IPv4 RSVP FECs by using appropriate keywords and arguments with the trace mpls command.

The MPLS LSP Traceroute feature uses TTL settings to force expiration of the TTL along an LSP. MPLS LSP Traceroute incrementally increases the TTL value in its MPLS echo requests (TTL = 1, 2, 3, 4) to discover the downstream mapping of each successive hop . The success of the LSP traceroute depends on the transit router processing the MPLS echo request when it receives a labeled packet with a TTL = 1. On Cisco routers, when the TTL expires, the packet is sent to the Route Processor (RP) for processing. The transit router returns an MPLS echo reply containing information about the transit hop in response to the TTL-expired MPLS packet. The MPLS echo reply destination port is set to the echo request source port.

Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 4399-4406).  . Kindle Edition.

http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/multiprotocol-label-switching-mpls/mpls/26585-mpls-traceroute.html

http://blog.ine.com/2008/11/24/mpls-ping-and-traceroute/