3.5.a Describe packet types

3.5.a [i] Packet types [hello, query, update, and such]

EIGRP uses five packet types:

● Hello/ Acks

● Updates

● Queries

● Replies

● Requests

Hellos are multicast for neighbor discovery/ recovery. They do not require acknowledgment. A hello with no data is also used as an acknowledgment (Ack). Acks are always sent using a unicast address and contain a non-zero acknowledgment number.

Updates are used to convey reachability of destinations . When a new neighbor is discovered, update packets are sent so the neighbor can build up its topology table. In this case, update packets are unicast. In other cases, such as a link cost change, updates are multicast. Updates are always transmitted reliably.

Queries and replies are sent when destinations go into Active state. Queries are always multicast unless they are sent in response to a received query. In this case, it is unicast back to the successor that originated the query. Replies are always sent in response to queries to indicate to the originator that it does not need to go into Active state because it has feasible successors. Replies are unicast to the originator of the query. Both queries and replies are transmitted reliably.

Request packets are used to get specific information from one or more neighbors. Request packets are used in route server applications. They can be multicast or unicast. Requests are transmitted unreliably.

The sequence TLV contains a list of the nodes that should not listen to multicast packets while the recovery takes place. While recovering, each reliable multicast packet transmitted has the CR (conditional receive) bit set to indicate that it should be processed only if the receiving node’s was not present in the preceding sequence TLV packet.

Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Location 3034).  . Kindle Edition.