3.2.b Implement and troubleshoot IPv4 protocol independent multicast

3.2.b [ii] Static RP, auto-RP, BSR

A rendezvous point (RP) is required only in networks running PIM sparse mode (PIM-SM). An RP acts as the meeting place (rendezvous) for sources and receivers of multicast data. In a PIM-SM network, sources must send their traffic to the RP. This traffic is then forwarded to receivers down a shared distribution tree . By default, when the first hop router of the receiver learns about the source, it will send a join message directly to the source, creating a source-based distribution tree from the source to the receiver. This source tree does not include the RP unless the RP is located within the shortest path between the source and receiver.

Following the introduction of PIM-SM v1, Cisco implemented a version of PIM-SM with the Auto-RP feature. Auto-RP automates the distribution of group-to-RP mappings in a PIM network. To make Auto-RP work, a router must be designated as an RP mapping agent, which receives the RP announcement messages from the RPs and arbitrates conflicts. The RP mapping agent then sends the consistent group -to-RP mappings to all other routers by dense mode flooding. Thus, all routers automatically discover which RP to use for the groups they support. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has assigned two group addresses, and, for Auto-RP. One advantage of Auto-RP is that any change to the RP designation must be configured only on the routers that are RPs and not on the leaf routers. Another advantage of Auto-RP is that it offers the ability to scope the RP address within a domain. Scoping can be achieved by defining the time-to-live (TTL) value allowed for the Auto-RP advertisements.

Another RP selection model called bootstrap router (BSR) was introduced after Auto-RP in PIM-SM v2. BSR performs similarly to Auto-RP in that it uses candidate routers for the RP function and for relaying the RP information for a group. RP information is distributed through BSR messages, which are carried within PIM messages. PIM messages are link-local multicast messages that travel from PIM router to PIM router. Because of this single hop method of disseminating RP information, TTL scoping cannot be used with BSR. A BSR performs similarly as an RP , except that it does not run the risk of reverting to dense mode operation, and it does not offer the ability to scope within a domain. Each method for configuring an RP has its own strengths , weaknesses, and level of complexity.

Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 2492-2494).  . Kindle Edition.