6.3.c [v] Stateful, stateless DHCPv6
6.3.c [vi] DHCPv6 prefix delegation
When DHCPv6 server has the Prefix Delegation feature enabled, it acts as a delegating router. The delegating router automates the process of assigning prefixes to the requesting router (that is, the DHCP client). Once the server has delegated prefixes to the client, the interface that is connected to the local area network (LAN) of the requesting router has an IPv6 address using the received prefix block. The requesting router then announces this address in the Router Advertisement messages. The client routers (that is, the routers in the local network) can use the autoconfig option to pull the global IP address from the advertised Router Advertisement messages by the DHCP client.
Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 5969-5972). . Kindle Edition.
6.3.b [i] NTP master, client, version 3, version 4
NTP is designed to synchronize the time on a network of machines. NTP runs over the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), using port 123 as both the source and destination, which in turn runs over IP. NTP Version 3 is used to synchronize timekeeping among a set of distributed time servers and clients. A set of nodes on a network are identified and configured with NTP and the nodes form a synchronization subnet, sometimes referred to as an overlay network. While multiple masters (primary servers) may exist, there is no requirement for an election protocol.
An NTP network usually gets its time from an authoritative time source, such as a radio clock or an atomic clock attached to a time server. NTP then distributes this time across the network. An NTP client makes a transaction with its server over its polling interval (from 64 to 1024 seconds) which dynamically changes over time depending on the network conditions between the NTP server and the client. The other situation occurs when the router communicates to a bad NTP server (for example, NTP server with large dispersion); the router also increases the poll interval. No more than one NTP transaction per minute is needed to synchronize two machines. It is not possible to adjust the NTP poll interval on a router.
NTP uses the concept of a stratum to describe how many NTP hops away a machine is from an authoritative time source. For example, a stratum 1 time server has a radio or atomic clock directly attached to it. It then sends its time to a stratum 2 time server through NTP, and so on. A machine running NTP automatically chooses the machine with the lowest stratum number that it is configured to communicate with using NTP as its time source.
This strategy effectively builds a self-organizing tree of NTP speakers. NTP performs well over the non-deterministic path lengths of packet-switched networks, because it makes robust estimates of the following three key variables in the relationship between a client and a time server.
● Network delay
● Dispersion of time packet exchanges— A measure of maximum clock error between the two hosts.
● Clock offset— The correction applied to a client’s clock to synchronize it.
NTP avoids synchronizing to a machine whose time may not be accurate in two ways. First of all, NTP never synchronizes to a machine that is not synchronized itself. Secondly, NTP compares the time reported by several machines, and will not synchronize to a machine whose time is significantly different than the others, even if its stratum is lower.
The communications between machines running NTP (associations) are usually statically configured. Each machine is given the IP address of all machines with which it should form associations. Accurate timekeeping is made possible by exchanging NTP messages between each pair of machines with an association. However, in a LAN environment, NTP can be configured to use IP broadcast messages instead. This alternative reduces configuration complexity because each machine can be configured to send or receive broadcast messages. However, the accuracy of timekeeping is marginally reduced because the information flow is one-way only.
The time kept on a machine is a critical resource and it is strongly recommend that you use the security features of NTP to avoid the accidental or malicious setting of incorrect time. The two security features available are an access list-based restriction scheme and an encrypted authentication mechanism.
Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 5875-5881). . Kindle Edition.
6.3.b [ii] NTP Authentication
You can configure the device to authenticate the time sources to which the local clock is synchronized . When you enable NTP authentication, the device synchronizes to a time source only if the source carries one of the authentication keys specified by the ntp trusted-key command. The device drops any packets that fail the authentication check and prevents them from updating the local clock. NTP authentication is disabled by default.
Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 5886-5888). . Kindle Edition.
6.3.a [ii] Redundancy using IPv6 RS/RA
IPv6 routing protocols ensure router-to-router resilience and failover. However, in situations in which the path between a host and the first-hop router fails, or the first-hop router itself fails, first hop redundancy protocols (FHRPs) ensure host-to-router resilience and failover.
The Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP) FHRP protects data traffic from a failed router or circuit, while allowing packet load sharing between a group of redundant routers . The Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) protects data traffic in case of a gateway failure.
The Gateway Load Balancing Protocol feature provides automatic router backup for IPv6 hosts configured with a single default gateway on an IEEE 802.3 LAN. Multiple first hop routers on the LAN combine to offer a single virtual first-hop IPv6 router while sharing the IPv6 packet forwarding load. GLBP performs a similar function for the user as HSRP . HSRP allows multiple routers to participate in a virtual router group configured with a virtual IPv6 address. One member is elected to be the active router to forward packets sent to the virtual IPv6 address for the group. The other routers in the group are redundant until the active router fails. These standby routers have unused bandwidth that the protocol is not using. Although multiple virtual router groups can be configured for the same set of routers, the hosts must be configured for different default gateways, which results in an extra administrative burden. The advantage of GLBP is that it additionally provides load balancing over multiple routers (gateways) using a single virtual IPv6 address and multiple virtual MAC addresses. The forwarding load is shared among all routers in a GLBP group rather than being handled by a single router while the other routers stand idle. Each host is configured with the same virtual IPv6 address, and all routers in the virtual router group participate in forwarding packets.
Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 5841-5847). . Kindle Edition.