2.3.a Implement and troubleshoot HDLC

HDLC is a bit -oriented synchronous data link layer protocol. It supports various layer 3 protocols in addition to IP.

Adam, Paul (2014-07-12). All-in-One CCIE V5 Written Exam Guide (Kindle Locations 2127-2128).  . Kindle Edition.


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Cisco High-Level Data Link Controller (HDLC) is the Cisco proprietary protocol for sending data over synchronous serial links using HDLC. Cisco HDLC also provides a simple control protocol called Serial Line Address Resolution Protocol (SLARP) to maintain serial link keepalives. Cisco HDLC is the default for data encapsulation at Layer 2 (data link) of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) stack for efficient packet delineation and error control.

Note Cisco HDLC is the default encapsulation type for the serial interfaces.

When the encapsulation on a serial interface is changed from HDLC to any other encapsulation type, the configured serial subinterfaces on the main interface inherit the newly changed encapsulation and they do not get deleted.

Cisco HDLC uses keepalives to monitor the link state, as described in the “Keepalive Timer” section.

Cisco keepalives are useful for monitoring the link state. Periodic keepalives are sent to and received from the peer at a frequency determined by the value of the keepalive timer. If an acceptable keepalive response is not received from the peer, the link makes the transition to the down state. As soon as an acceptable keepalive response is obtained from the peer or if keepalives are disabled, the link makes the transition to the up state.

Note The keepalive command applies to serial interfaces using HDLC or PPP encapsulation. It does not apply to serial interfaces using Frame Relay encapsulation.

For each encapsulation type, a certain number of keepalives ignored by a peer triggers the serial interface to transition to the down state. For HDLC encapsulation, three ignored keepalives causes the interface to be brought down. For PPP encapsulation, five ignored keepalives causes the interface to be brought down. ECHOREQ packets are sent out only when LCP negotiation is complete (for example, when LCP is open).

Use the keepalive command in interface configuration mode to set the frequency at which LCP sends ECHOREQ packets to its peer. To restore the system to the default keepalive interval of 10 seconds, use the keepalive command with the no keyword. To disable keepalives, use the keepalive disable command. For both PPP and Cisco HDLC, a keepalive of 0 disables keepalives and is reported in the show running-config command output as keepalive disable .