2.1.a Implement and troubleshoot switch administration

the csma/cd process

carrier sense multiple access with collision detection

1. A device with a frame to send listens until the Ethernet is not busy (in other words,
the device cannot sense a carrier signal on the Ethernet segment).
2. When the Ethernet is not busy, the sender begins sending the frame.
3. The sender listens to make sure that no collision occurred.
4. If there was a collision, all stations that sent a frame send a jamming signal to ensure
that all stations recognize the collision.
5. After the jamming is complete, each sender of one of the original collided frames
randomizes a timer and waits that long before resending. (Other stations that did not
create the collision do not have to wait to send.)
6. After all timers expire, the original senders can begin again with Step 1.